- Decision making is the process of selecting the best alternative from the available set of alternatives.
- Decision making involves three activities: (Herbert A Simon)
- Intelligence Activity
- Designing Activity
- Choice Activity
- Establish objectives
- Classify and prioritize objectives
- Develop alternative actions
- Evaluate alternatives against objectives
- Tentative decision to most appropriate alternative
- Evaluation of tentative decision for more consequences
- Decisive action is taken and additional actions to prevent consequences
- Consists of a structured four-step sequence:
- identifying the problem
- generating alternative solutions
- selecting a solution
- implementing and evaluating the solution
- Techniques used in rational model of decision-making are:
- SWOT analysis
- Pareto analysis
- Decision trees
- Management by Objectives (MBO)
- Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Simon’s Normative Model
- This model based on premise that decision making is not
- The model state that decision making is characterized by:
- limited information processing
- use of rules of thumb or shortcuts
- Groups can accumulate more knowledge and facts
- Groups have a broader perspective and consider more
- Individuals who participate in decisions are more satisfied
with the decision and are more likely to support it.
Clinical Decision Making Model
Banning described three clinical decision making models:
- information-processing model that uses a scientific hypothetic-deductive, quantitative approach,
- the intuitive-humanistic model that focuses on intuition and how the knowledge gained from nursing experience enriches the clinical decision making process and
- the clinical-decision model that uses both hypothetico-deductive and pattern recognition.
- Critical pathways are used as a technique in clinical decision making.
- Decision-making models offer analytical tools which can be combined to provide useful insights.
- In the real world, most of our decisions are made unconsciously in our mind.
- Banning M. A review of clinical decision making: models and current research. J Clin Nurs.2008;17(2):187–95.
- Baron, J. (2004). Normative models of judgment and decision making. In D. J. Koehler& N. Harvey (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, pp. 19:36.